This second edition of the guideline combines prevention and treatment recommendations in one expanded guideline. This edition also includes newly added sections on emerging fields of interest including:

  • prevention and treatment of biofilms, prophylactic dressings,
  • microclimate control,
  • medical-device related pressure ulcers
  • prevention and management of heel pressure ulcers, and
  • low friction fabrics.

The guideline includes updated recommendations and/or research summaries for the following pressure ulcer topics:

  • etiology;
  • prevalence and incidence;
  • risk assessment;
  • skin and tissue assessment;
  • preventive skin care;
  • prophylactic dressings;
  • microclimate control;
  • fabrics and textiles;
  • nutrition;
  • repositioning and early mobilization;
  • support surfaces;
  • medical device related pressure ulcers;
  • pressure ulcer classification;
  • wound assessment;
  • monitoring of healing;
  • pain assessment and treatment;
  • cleansing;
  • debridement;
  • wound dressings (including growth factors and biological wound dressings);
  • assessment and treatment of infection and biofilms;
  • biophysical agents (e.g. electrical stimulation, negative pressure wound therapy, electromagnetic field treatment); and
  • surgery

The Guideline also includes the NPUAP/EPUAP International Pressure Ulcer Classification system, complete with full Category/Stage descriptions and illustrative photography.

Visit the guideline website ( for supporting documents, permissions for reproduction, and translated versions.

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To order your print copy of the full Guidelines, please click on the link below. You can also order print copies of the Quick Reference Guide below, or download a PDF copy free. Shoppers in the Pan Pacific region should enter the following discount code for a regional discount: PPPIA


 Full guideline   Quick guide

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The following sponsors provided unconditional education grants to support guideline dissemination:

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